The end of an era, which began in the 16th century, finally came around in 1997 when Hong Kong, one of the empire’s most prominent territories, was transferred back to China. As in the Indian Subcontinent, the British used local African tribal leaders to work for them from afar. Nonetheless, British colonials held themselves apart from local people more than other Europeans did, hiring locals as domestic help, but rarely intermarrying with them. He dug into the history of almost 200 … A … Within 30 years, both England and France had established colonies in the New World. Great Britain annexed Aden in 1839 and established colonies in South Africa in 1843. A List of Countries Colonized by the British in the Victorian Era. Classroom is the educational resource for people of all ages. But it took a couple of decades for the European colonialism to fully collapse; France was fighting for Algeria until 1962 and Portugal did not abandon its African colonies until 1974. All maps, graphics, flags, photos and original descriptions © 2021 worldatlas.com. Britain had an extensive history of colonization, and it wanted colonies in North America for multiple reasons, including to increase their trading opportunities, create new jobs, and bring in revenue from colonial workers and goods. In British North America, clashes with the United States during the War of 1812 and growing concerns about possible American annexation during the Civil War (1861-1865) led to the creation of the independent Dominion of Canada by Act of Confederation in 1867. These two countries fought for the territory and made many influences along the way. Nothing lasts forever, however. T he other countries must feel so left out. But it took a couple of decades for the European colonialism to fully collapse; France was fighting for Algeria until 1962 and Portugal did not abandon its African colonies until 1974. India was under the private control of the British East India Company until 1857. Follow Africa is Home to learn more. Britain did not have the amount of people to use direct control over all of their colonies, especially Africa. Eventually, a growing spirit of independence would strip Spain of its New World empire. In this case, the 13 colonies were located in North America, and they were controlled by Great Britain. 1 Countries Colonized by Britain. The country had colonies in the Western Hemisphere as well, mostly Caribbean islands coveted for their run and sugar production. Canada’s road to independence has been long and winding. Lesson Summary. Syria: Colonized by France in 1918, became independent in 1946. The Democratic Republic of the Congo. Hulton Archive/Hulton Archive/Getty Images, The History Press: India from Queen Victoria's Time to Independence, Australian War Memorial: Colonial period, 1788–1901. Britain expanded to Africa and India both full of resources, and both full of people with different cultures, customs, and religions. After more conflict, Burma became part of the empire in the 1880s. This means … Jennifer Mueller began writing and editing professionally in 1995, when she became sports editor of her university's newspaper while also writing a bi-monthly general interest column for an independent tourist publication. Britain was left essentially bankrupt, with insolvency only averted in 1946 after the negotiation of a $US 4.33 billion loanfrom the United States, the last installment of which … New research shows that practically everyone has been invaded by British troops at one point or another. In West Africa, the British had no pretensions about their attitude toward their colonies and colonial subjects. T he other countries must feel so left out. Great Britain participated in economic imperialism in India. Britain did not want to be paternalistic like the French colonialists, and it did not practice the assimilation policies of the French. Though Britain and the empire emerged victorious from the Second World War, the effects of the conflict were profound, both at home and abroad. Britain ruled Hong Kong with an agreement that the empire would give Hong Kong back to China 99 years after signing the deal, on July 1 1997, which it did. Britain began colonizing the world back in the 16th century and spread its power through a strong army and by partnering with local authorities to conduct business. By 1914, most of the countries in the world had been colonized by Europe. It remains to be seen if any one power will again dominate over such a large portion of the globe, but history does have a tendency to repeat itself. The New South Wales colony on Australia's east coast was divided into separate colonies during the mid-1800s. By the end of her 64-year reign, the United Kingdom (U.K.) controlled more than 14 million square miles of territory and produced around 30 percent of the world's total industrial output. Who are the indigenous people of Palestine? I will let you figure out the countries in the map below for yourself. Before proceeding to look at how the British rule shattered the Indian economy, it will be useful to consider the respective macro-economic situations that prevailed in Britain and India before the Indian subjugation.It should be noted that the British, during the 16th and 17th centuries, were in a bad shape. 1 … British North America and Colonial America. As far as current British overseas territories go, these include land in the Antarctic as well as Anguilla, Bermuda, British Indian Ocean territory, the British Virgin Islands, the Cayman Islands, the Falkland Islands, Gibraltar, Montserrat, the Pitcairn Islands, St Helena and its Dependencies, South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands, the Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia, and the Turks & Caicos Islands. These include Antigua and Barbuda, Barbados, the Bahamas, Australia, Belize, Barbados, Canada, Grenada, Jamaica, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, St Kitts and Nevis, St Lucia, St Vincent and the Grenadines, Solomon Islands and Tuvalu. All of them speak Arabic. Why not google the question for yourself? Colonization and early self-government The opening of the 17th century found three countries— France, Spain, and England —contending for dominion in North America. ... British colonies, including Africa and India, made a significant contribution to the war effort. It all began back in the 1600s when Britain first set up the East India Company in order to bring silk, spices, tea, and salt from India to Europe. The British Empire was massive and was created with crafty, creative, and domineering ways of thinking. In what is now the eastern US, thirteen British colonies were set up during the 17th and 18th centuries. In this case, the 13 colonies were located in North America, and they were controlled by Great Britain. When the British colonized these new lands, they changed things. The colonies originally were administered by New South Wales, but in 1841 New Zealand became a British colony in its own right. In the mid- to late-1800s, European powers became obsessed with obtaining territory and British colonies on the African continent. In 1780, these people began to form a colony in New South Wales. It began with the overseas possessions and trading posts established by England between the late 16th and early 18th centuries. The British empire ruled over British North America in what is now Canada, beginning in about 1860. The British in Africa. Portugal The Portuguese had the least impact on Southeast Asia. By 1914, most of the countries in the world had been colonized by Europe. In the mid- to late-1800s, European powers became obsessed with obtaining territory and British colonies on the ... 2 Spices and Tea. During Queen Victoria's reign, Great Britain continued to expand its claim to territories in Australia and the Pacific. The other country was Great Britain, who happened to colonize many countries besides Sudan (Benjamin 1060). Based on the Word Net lexical database for the English Language. Togo. Gilbert and Ellice Islands (Kiribati and Tuvalu), 1997 (Now a Chinese special administrative region), 1965 (self governing island state in free association with New Zealand), Mandatory Palestine (Israel, Jordanian annexation of the West Bank, Palestine Protectorate), 1860 (now part of Nicaragua and Honduras), 1846 (became a US territory, then a state), 1783 (became a Spanish colony, later a US territory, Province of Nova Scotia (one of the founding provinces of Canada), Province of Quebec (one of the founding provinces of Canada), 1869 (became part of the Canadian confederation), 1963 (became a state of Malaysia, then separated in 1965), Straits Settlements (Singapore, Malaysia, Borneo), 1946 (Separated and passed to other nations), Swan River Colony (Western Australia, state in Australia). With the occupation of Egypt in 1882, Great Britain aimed to annex more territory in East Africa until British territory connected the Cape of Good Hope to Cairo. These areas became prosperous economically and many people living in them began to wonder at one point why they needed to pay taxes to leaders back in England. In 1780, these people began to form a colony in New South Wales. Britain had no right to rule people who did not want to be ruled by Britain. Between 1840 and 1868, the British began phasing out their original practice of shipping convicts to Australia. Contents. The colonized the following territories; Sudan Lesotho Benin Kenya Tanzania Somalia Eastern Ghana Cameroons Egypt Gambia Nigeria South Africa The company set up relationships that were mutually beneficial for both Britain and locals in India and in other countries throughout the Indian Subcontinent. While various countries gained their independence over time, even by 1952 when Queen Elizabeth took the throne, over 70 colonies still existed in the empire overseas. Britain had an extensive history of colonization, and it wanted colonies in North America for multiple reasons, including to increase their trading opportunities, create new jobs, and bring in revenue from colonial workers and goods. Fourteen countries were represented by a plethora of ambassadors when the conference opened in Berlin on November 15, 1884. Britain advanced the land and the territories greatly in terms of technology and society, it came at the expense of the native peoples. Who will be next? Top British and middle Indian administrators ruled Burma. South Australia was established in 1836, Victoria in 1851 and Queensland in 1859. Great Britain waged two wars with Afghanistan to protect the northwest border of India resulting in Afghanistan becoming a semi-protectorate of the crown in 1880. The first attempt at colonization came from their bordering country of Egypt. Germany had only been unified in … The Central African Republic. Senegal. British rule extended into the Pacific with the acquisition of the Fiji Islands in 1874 and British New Guinea in 1884. The British government watched the East India Company, who ruled India. This is what British historian Stuart Laycock learned after his son asked him how many countries Britain had invaded. So many countries were colonized by the British, but there are many countries that weren't colonized by the British either. Further east, the British established control of the Malay peninsula and acquired a lease on Hong Kong from China following the end of the Opium Wars. The countries represented at the time included Austria-Hungary, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Russia, Spain, Sweden-Norway (unified … The British Empire of the 19th century is best known for its queen, Victoria (1837-1901). See disclaimer. Given the vast size and complexity of the empire, Great Britain made no effort to rule it as a single political unit. © 2020 Leaf Group Ltd. / Leaf Group Media, All Rights Reserved. By Victoria Simpson on September 8 2020 in World Facts. The nations conquered were linked in trade as well as in politics, and this lasted for quite a while. List of countries that have gained independence from the United Kingdom. Britain colonized India from 1757 to 1947. Much of Europe, a continent that had dominated the world for several centuries, was in ruins, and host to the armies of the United States and the Soviet Union, who now held the balance of global power. French bronze medal commemorating John Brown, the American abolitionist who attempted to forcibly end slavery in the United States. Likewise, British forces gained power in the eastern region of the Persian Empire, near present-day Pakistan. Jamaica was obtained by conquest in 1655, and the Hudson’s Bay Company established itself in what became northwestern Canada from the 1670s on. Britain seized control in 1822 when the Egyptian government was in debt to Europe. Rwanda. Today, the US is not governed by the UK, and Canada is a sovereign nation but a constitutional monarchy with the Queen of Canada (Queen Elizabeth) as the head of state. Colonization by the French and the British had a strong influence on Egyptian society. India was a colony of Britain from 1858 to 1947. This was done with the 1841 Convention of Chuenpi. India was a colony of Britain from 1858 to 1947. During the Victorian era, Asia and India were the primary focus for expanding the British empire. e.g: Burkina Faso. The history of colonization began when the First Fleet of Britain arrived in Sydney. It all began back in the 1600s when Britain first set up the East India Company in order to ... Hong Kong. There were, however, some large conquering empires: the Bugandan Empire in Uganda; the Zulus in South Africa; the Mwene Mutapa Empire of the Shona people in Zambia, or Great Zimbabwe; the Benin Empire; the kingdoms of the Yoruba (Ife, Oyo, and Ibadan); the Ashanti in Ghana; the Fulani Empire in northern Nigeria, which even tried to extend into regions of Sierra Leone; the Kanem-Bo… Iraq: Occupied by Britain in World War I. Nominally independent after 1932. These included what are now Kenya, Sudan, Lesotho, Botswana, Northern Somalia, Egypt, Eastern Ghana, Gambia, Niger, and Benin. What happened to the rest? Whether you’re studying times tables or applying to college, Classroom has the answers. The majority of ethnic nations lived in their independent small polities. Thus, many European countries, such as Italy, Portugal, Greece, Spain, England and Germany, began acquiring colonies, leading to the colonial division of the world. Spanning over 400 years, historians continue to research and discover new things about the British Empire.And today more than ever, people are recognising, questioning and understanding the full story behind this important part of world history. Interestingly, 18 African countries that were formerly British colonies have chosen to remain connected to Great Britain as members of the British Commonwealth. Former British Colonies. Currently, none. These were all places Britain wanted to dominate for access to goods such as rubber, salt, gold, ivory, and other natural products. This eventually led to the American War of Independence, also known as the Revolutionary War, which took place from 1775 to 1783. Thirteen British colonies on the British, but in 1841 New Zealand a! Attitude toward their colonies, especially Africa a planetary superpower and dominate the World Stuart! New South Wales colony on Australia 's East coast was divided into colonies. 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