The latter wrote a sarcastic reply, telling Pétain that he should have "thought of this before". On 30 October 1940, Pétain made state collaboration official, declaring on the radio: "I … [35] Weygand said that he was in favor of saving the French army and that he "wished to avoid internal troubles and above all anarchy". But he recognised, after the new Army Organisation Law of 1927, that the tide was flowing against him. In March 1904, by then serving in the 104th Infantry, he was appointed adjunct professor of applied infantry tactics at the École Supérieure de Guerre,[5] and following promotion to lieutenant-colonel was promoted to professor on 3 April 1908. He was promoted to captain in 1890 and major (Chef de Bataillon) in 1900. ... *Date for meetings in France between Hitler and Petain and Laval and between Hitler and Franco shown on opening slate should be October 1940, not 1941. Laval Guides Nazi Vichy Policy; Petain Shelved, Reports Say Oil Lack Stopped Fleet Escape to Allies, Say French Captains General Seeks to End Honolulu Rat Problem Britain got us into this position, let us now try to get out of it. Paris remained the de jure capital. Winston Churchill had spoken to Reynaud during the impending fall of France, saying of Pétain, "... he had always been a defeatist, even in the last war [World War I]. [63], Over the following years Pétain's lawyers and many foreign governments and dignitaries, including Queen Mary and the Duke of Windsor, appealed to successive French governments for Pétain's release, but given the unstable state of Fourth Republic politics, no government was willing to risk unpopularity by releasing him. During the Phoney War, Laval was cautiously ambivalent towards the conflict. [66], On 8 June 1951, President Auriol, informed that Pétain had little longer to live, commuted his sentence to confinement in hospital; the news was kept secret until after the elections on 17 June, but by then, Pétain was too ill to be moved to Paris. Le complot Laval-Petain [Le complot Laval-Petain] on Amazon.com. The jury sentenced him to death by a one-vote majority. [32] Pétain was now in his 80th year. They are photographed. By 1932 the economic situation had worsened and Édouard Herriot's government had made "severe cuts in the defence budget... orders for new weapons systems all but dried up". Pétain's government was nevertheless internationally recognised, notably by the U.S., at least until the German occupation of the rest of France. Thereafter, he alternated between staff and regimental assignments. However, aged 58 and having been told he would never become a general, Pétain had bought a villa for retirement.[7]. His views were later proved to be correct during the First World War. He improved the recruitment programme for specialists, and lengthened the training period by reducing leave entitlements. He was told, in addition, by Maurice Gamelin, that if the plebiscite in the Territory of the Saar Basin went for Germany it would be a serious military error for the French Army to intervene. However, on his birthday almost three weeks later, he was taken to the Swiss border. Pétain was a bachelor until his sixties, and known for his womanising. [57] After coming under increasing pressure from Otto Abetz, the German ambassador, Henri-Philippe Petain agreed on 18th April 1942 to recall Laval as head of the French government. A new Cabinet with Pétain as head of government was formed, with Henry du Moulin de Labarthète as the Cabinet Secretary. This week in the War, 9–15 December 1940: Laval dismissed French aviation entered the War in 1939 without even the prototype of a bomber aeroplane capable of reaching Berlin and coming back. Henri-Philippe Pétain (1856-1951) was a World War I French general who was later imprisoned for treason. Pétain, instead, held off from major French offensives until the Americans arrived in force on the front lines, which did not happen until the early summer of 1918. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. At the end of August 1914 he was quickly promoted to brigadier-general and given command of the 6th Division in time for the First Battle of the Marne; little over a month later, in October 1914, he was promoted yet again and became XXXIII Corps commander. In January 1926, the Chief of Staff, General Debeney, proposed to the Conseil a "totally new kind of army. A new Cabinet with Pétain as head of government was formed, with Henry du Moulin de Labarthète as the Cabinet Secretary. In August 1944 the Germans carried Pétain, Laval and other Vichy ministers off to Germany. Von der Goltz, Anna, and Robert Gildea. [10] At the Conference, Ferdinand Foch was appointed as Allied Generalissimo, initially with powers to co-ordinate and deploy Allied reserves where he saw fit. Hengshan Road, in Shanghai, was "Avenue Pétain" between 1922 and 1943. (These groups had contacts with some conservative politicians, among whom were Laval and Marshal Philippe Pétain.) [54] Furthermore, France even remained formally at war with Germany, albeit opposed to the Free French. As a retired military commander, he ran the country on military lines. The cuts in military expenditure meant that taking the offensive was now impossible and a defensive strategy was all they could have. At the conference Pétain met de Gaulle for the first time in two years. [4] By January 1949, his lucid intervals were becoming fewer and fewer. He and his government collaborated with Germany in the years after the armistice. Pétain, however, having been forced to leave France, refused to participate in this government and Fernand de Brinon now headed the "government commission". [26] During this period, he repeatedly called for a lengthening of the term of compulsory military service for conscripts from two to three years, to no avail. Cabinet and Parliament still argued between themselves on the question of whether or not to retreat to North Africa. Petain crosses train tracks and shakes Hitler's hand. [8] The mutinies were kept secret from the Germans and their full extent and intensity were not revealed until decades later. "[46] General de Gaulle, no longer in the Cabinet, had arrived in London on the 17th and made a call for resistance from there, on the 18th, with no legal authority whatsoever from his government, a call that was heeded by comparatively few. On 12 June, after a second session of the conference, the cabinet met and Weygand again called for an armistice. [13][14] Pétain was encouraged by friends to go into politics, although he protested that he had little interest in running for an elected position. Le complot Laval-Petain A modern infantry rifle was adopted in 1936 but very few of these MAS-36 rifles had been issued to the troops by 1940. [57] Censorship was imposed, and freedom of expression and thought were effectively abolished with the reinstatement of the crime of "felony of opinion.". As to French artillery it had, basically, not been modernised since 1918. Organized by Pierre Laval, a strong proponent of collaboration, the interview and the handshake were photographed and exploited by Nazi propaganda to gain the support of the civilian population. Churchill returned to France on the 13th for another conference at Tours. At the very end of 1916, Nivelle was promoted over Pétain to replace Joseph Joffre as French Commander-in-Chief. [57] Churchill then said the French should defend Paris and reminded Pétain of how he had come to the aid of the British with forty divisions in March 1918, and repeating Clemenceau's words. During this time and the Normandy landings in 1944, Laval was in a struggle against ultra-collaborationist ministers. Pétain admitted Darnand into his government as Secretary of the Maintenance of Public Order (Secrétaire d'État au Maintien de l'Ordre). Highly impressed by the tales told by his uncle, his destiny was from then on determined by the army. A 58-year-old colonel at the start of battle in 1914, Pétain … Laval and Pétain agreed to maintain a firm refusal. Pétain then replied that it would mean the destruction of the country. At cabinet on 15 June, Reynaud urged that France follow the Dutch example, that the Army should lay down its arms so that the fight could be continued from abroad. Laval now ordered the French police to begin rounding up Jews in France. His great-uncle, a Catholic priest, Father Abbe Lefebvre (1771–1866), had served in Napoleon's Grande Armée and told the young Philippe tales of war and adventure of his campaigns from the peninsulas of Italy to the Alps in Switzerland. that Pétain, as France's most senior soldier after Foch's death, should bear some responsibility for the poor state of French weaponry preparation before World War II. Various shots Petain drives to Notre Dame for Mass with Pierre Laval. These two men travelled to Warsaw for the funeral of the Polish Marshal Piłsudski in May 1935 (and another cordial meeting with Göring). [57] Neither Pétain nor his successive deputies, Laval, Pierre-Étienne Flandin, or Admiral François Darlan, gave significant resistance to requests by the Germans to indirectly aid the Axis Powers. [42], Lebrun reluctantly accepted Reynaud’s resignation as Prime Minister on 16 June, and felt he had little choice but to appoint Pétain in his place. I could not detect any sign in him of broken morale, of that mental wringing of hands and incipient hysteria noticeable in others." He was on record as saying in March 1940 that although the war could have been avoided by diplomatic means, it was now up to the government to prosecute it with the utmost vigour. GERARD(PA56). He was subsequently decorated, at Toledo, by King Alfonso XIII with the Spanish Medalla Militar. [2] After rejecting Pétain's first marriage proposal, Hardon had married and divorced François de Hérain by 1914 when she was 35. He referred to the danger of military and civil disorder and the possibility of a Communist uprising in Paris. With the imminent Fall of France in June 1940 in World War II, Pétain was appointed President of the Ministerial Council by President Lebrun at Bordeaux, and the Cabinet resolved to sign armistice agreements with Germany and Italy. In the latter year General Maxime Weygand claimed that "the French Army was no longer a serious fighting force". "), the other famous quotation often attributed to him – "Ils ne passeront pas!" Debatable or disputed rulers are in italics. This page was last edited on 16 January 2021, at 10:38. [23] His first report on air defence, submitted in July that year, advocated increased expenditure. After his conviction, the court stripped Pétain of all military ranks and honours save for the one distinction of Marshal of France. He held 3400 courts martial; 554 mutineers were sentenced to death but over 90% had their sentences commuted. After World War I Pétain married his former girlfriend, Eugénie Hardon (1877–1962), "a particularly beautiful woman", on 14 September 1920; they remained married until the end of Pétain's life. De Gaulle later conceded that Pétain was right about that much at least.[38]. Eight were initially undecided but swung towards an armistice. [37] Churchill then said the French should consider "guerrilla warfare". His great-uncle, a Catholic priest, Father Abbe Lefebvre, had served in Napoleon's Grande Armée and told the young Pétain tales of war and adventure of his campaigns from the peninsulas of Italy to the Alps in Switzerland. The entire government subsequently moved briefly to Clermont-Ferrand, then to the spa town of Vichy in central France. He even allegedly named his eldest son after the Marshal, although it is more likely that he named his son after his family ancestor Jean Baptiste Philippe de Gaulle,[22] before finally falling out over the authorship of a book he had said he had ghost-written for Pétain. Retrospective shots Marshal Petain at age of 96, France. In addition, François-Marsal announced reductions – in the army from fifty-five divisions to thirty, in the air force, and did not mention tanks. Tks in advance A Certain idea of France The life of Charles de Gaulle, Julian Jackson, p. 58. At the opening of the Battle of Verdun in 1916, Pétain is said to have been fetched during the night from a Paris hotel by a staff officer who knew that he could be found with Eugénie Hardon. Not once did he offer a sympathetic word for Germany." [39], Parliament, both senate and chamber, were also at Bordeaux and immersed themselves in the armistice debate. Paul Baudouin met his plane and immediately spoke to him of the hopelessness of further French resistance. [28] Calls were made to re-locate his remains to the grave prepared for him at Verdun. Lebrun persuaded him to stay until Churchill’s reply had been received. After lunch, Churchill’s telegram arrived agreeing to an armistice provided the French fleet was moved to British ports, a suggestion which was not acceptable to Darlan, who argued that it would leave France defenceless. Faced with the Marshal's continued refusal, the Germans threatened to bring in the Wehrmacht to bomb Vichy. Acting heads of state are denoted by an asterisk. When Renthe-Fink entered the Marshal's office at the Hôtel du Parc with General von Neubronn "at 7:30 p.m.", the Head of State was supervising the packing up of his suitcases and papers. [42] The outcome of the meeting is uncertain. After the failed Nivelle Offensive and subsequent mutinies he was appointed Commander-in-Chief and succeeded in repairing the army's confidence. The three Marshals supported this. On 18 June, Édouard Herriot (who would later be a prosecution witness at Pétain's trial) and Jeanneney, the presidents of the two Chambers of Parliament, as well as Lebrun said they wanted to go. On the naval front, France had purposely overlooked building modern aircraft carriers and focused instead on four new conventional battleships, not unlike the German Navy. [72], withdrawn following conviction for high treason in 1945. Reserves could be called up when needed. On 10 June, the government left Paris for Tours. In collaboration with Nazi Germany, he then served as the Chief of State of Vichy France from 1940 to 1944. This was France's highest military position, whose holder was Commander-in-Chief designate in the event of war and who had the right to overrule the Chief of the General Staff (a position held in the 1920s by Petain's protégés Buat and Debeney), and Petain would hold it until 1931. After leading his corps in the spring 1915 Artois Offensive, in July 1915 he was given command of the Second Army, which he led in the Champagne Offensive that autumn. In 1938 Pétain encouraged and assisted the writer André Maurois in gaining election to the Académie française – an election which was highly contested, in part due to Maurois' Jewish origin. Neither Pétain nor his successive deputies, Laval, Pierre-Étienne Flandin, or Admiral François Darlan, gave significant resistance to requests by the Germans to indirectly aid the Axis Powers. 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